The archive is damaged or some of its data is missing. The file may not have been fully downloaded. Try to compare the size or MD5 checksum of the archive file if they known. Try downloading the file from the source again if they are different or unknown.
Recovering data from damaged archives is usually a difficult task and depends on the type of archive and the degree of damage. The automatic recovery mode of RAR archives is available in the official WinRAR application. Information about recovering 7ZIP archives can be found on the official website.
Insufficient space on SD card or phone memory. You need to free up space to extract the data.
The contents of the archive are password protected (you can create such archives too!). The password you entered is not correct. Usually the password is provided by its author or it is published on the Internet near to the link to download the archive.
The file is not an archive. When downloading files from the Internet, it happens that a web page is downloaded as the file (with it name). You need to make sure that the file is exactly an archive.